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Government and People
CHAPTER FOUR: STRATEGIC AREAS
While the previous chapters of this report discussed ways that Washington, DC could become a better place to live and a more prosperous place to do business, this section will specifically address the neighborhoods, the city blocks, and the buildings where all of this positive change will actually take place.
Place matters. It matters if we are going to grow the private sector. It matters if we are going to attract and retain residents in the city. We must have real places vibrant and welcoming places where businesses can take root, where the Industry Networks can thrive, and where people can live and work and raise their families with dignity and opportunity. Successful development of the city's strategic areas will be a prime generator of the city's economic vitality, and these areas will in turn benefit from this accelerated growth.
The entire plan, and particularly this part of it, is about taking an economy that is working well for so many of us, and making sure that it works for each and every resident, worker, and visitor in Washington DC.
We have an opportunity to take the seeds of our current economic prosperity and use them to invest in our neighborhoods our businesses and commercial districts, our homes and schools, our streets and transportation, our parks and playgrounds, our libraries and museums, our art galleries and theaters. It all starts with jobs, and our plan is about creating better jobs for more people.
Our plan for the city's strategic areas is not a plan just for downtown, one that will benefit only the upper-income residents of the city. This is a plan for everyone; it was written by a broad cross-section of the city and it is designed to benefit everyone.
The actions detailed in this section, some of which are already being carried out, may seem self-evident. You may have heard a few of them discussed on previous occasions. Other actions are new ideas and have not been attempted before in our city. Either way, what is different here is the way they are knit together as part of a comprehensive economic strategy, and more importantly, this time the proposed actions will actually get accomplished.
We divide this chapter on strategic areas into sections on downtown and on neighborhoods. Traditionally in Washington, DC, downtown has been the main concern of economic development. In our report, many more key actions are focused on developing and improving neighborhoods.
Downtown Washington, DC is a story of recent success and abundant opportunity. The recent construction and opening of the MCI Center has dramatically set off a $3.1 billion building boom that is transforming the city center's particularly the cast end of downtown with new offices and hotels. It has already shown a remarkable 75 percent increase in visitors and tourists. The new Downtown DC and Golden Triangle Business Improvement Districts (BIDs), with their smiling personnel in colorful uniforms bringing a "clean, safe, and friendly" ambiance to the streets of our central business areas, have been a positive force for change. A sure sign of improvement is the real estate market, which leased over one million square feet of additional office space last year and increased occupancy rates by one-third since 1992. The city now contains over 100 million square feet of office space, the third largest concentration in the country, exceeded only by New York and Chicago. Currently demand is high, vacancy rates are low, and growth is evident on every corner.
However, downtown also once had seven major department stores and now has just one. Some large employers have moved workers to "back office" facilities in the suburbs, or simply moved out altogether.
While the bulk of downtown Washington, DC is bustling with office space occupied by lawyers, lobbyists, consultants. federal agencies, and others, two-thirds of those people commute daily from Maryland or Virginia. Their incomes are not subject to any reciprocal taxation by the city.
This tells us something important. In addition to encouraging more of these workers to live in the city, we should increase opportunities for the downtown commuters to spend their money in the city at night. The best way to do this is to turn downtown into a lively mixed-use area; a 24-hour city of restaurants, entertainment, and arts, with more people on the streets, more demand for services, more retail stores, and more housing.
Some of the work is already being done through the BlDs, in partnership with many other public and private sector groups. By keeping the streets and sidewalks cleaner and safer, by marketing downtown to businesses, visitors, and shoppers, and by encouraging the improvement of public spaces and fostering the growth of cultural amenities, downtown is becoming more attractive and lively.
For many businesses, there still is no better place to locate than Washington, DC with its prestige and its proximity to the White House, Congress and other important federal institutions. The growing cost of office space and traffic congestion in the suburbs has recently become another factor in promoting renewed business interest in a downtown location.
The opening of the Reagan Building with its International Trade Center, the great success of the MCI Center, the commitment to build a new $650 million Washington Convention Center and the opportunity to redevelop the existing one, the planned development of Gallery Place, the success of the new BET Jazz Restaurant, and many other recent investments all point to a bright future for downtown.
The accelerating pace of change highlights the need to focus particular attention on a few key issues: expanding day and evening retail and entertainment activity, building a critical mass of downtown housing, and dealing with traffic congestion while promoting increased tourism. The key actions proposed directly address these three major needs. The first action focuses on creating a new F Street retail corridor that would include at least a portion of the historic former Woodward and Lothrop Department Store Building at Metro Center, which last was going to be the new home of the Washington Opera but now is for sale.
The next action addresses the need to redevelop a city government owned site on Pennsylvania Avenue, bringing in new revenue building an elegant mixed-use structure that will be an asset to the area, and increasing the supply of downtown housing. Action 19 in Chapter Four on Strategic Populations also emphasizes the need for more housing and retail stores to be built downtown. This action redeveloping the Department of Employment Services (DOES) building is also for neighborhoods. DOES would move to a brand new building constructed in a neighborhood near to a Metro station, The new building would serve as a catalyst to help revitalize that community's commercial district, much as the Reeves Building helped revive business activity around 14th and U Streets, NW.
The last action deals with encouraging more visitors and improving the quality of life in downtown and neighborhoods by getting tour and charter buses off the streets where they bring noise, congestion, pollution, and cause parking problems. A special parking facility would help mitigate these problems.
OPPORTUNITY: NOMA NORTH OF MASSACHUSETTS AVENUE
One of the newest near-downtown development opportunities is in the area north of Massachusetts Avenue, appropriately called "NoMa." This area, directly north of the central business district, will be anchored by the new Convention Center on the west, Union Station on the east, and New York Avenue on the north. The excitement generated by the MCI Center nearby has sparked interest in the potential of NoMa as a vibrant mixed-use community. It can become Washington, DC's answer to New York's SoHo and San Francisco's South of Market multimedia technology district that includes housing, arts and entertainment, and other attractions. Cable News Network, National Public Radio, Atlantic Video, and other media and technology companies already operate in the area, which stretches eastward from Mt. Vernon Square near downtown, along the New York Avenue corridor to the planned site of a new Metrorail station to serving the Red Line at New York and Florida Avenues, NE.
NoMa is a future business and job generator for the city, especially for companies in the Information Technology / Telecommunications and Media / Publications Industry Networks. Its location near the Congress, excellent transportation accessibility, and availability of vacant land and underutilized industrial-type buildings and warehouses make it a prime candidate for economic investment. The Washington, DC Marketing Center is recruiting technology firms and promoting innovative development to attract small entrepreneurs involved with computer graphics, software, internet, multimedia, fiber optics, and similar cutting edge products and services. As the New York Avenue gateway with both freight rail and trucking, it can serve as an ideal "inland port" and the city's major foreign trade zone for international commerce.
At the same time, housing is a essential for NoMa to thrive. From traditional townhomes to unconventional live-work spaces, both newly built and renovated housing will help attract the type of young and energetic, high-quality workforce that is particularly drawn to a vibrant urban lifestyle. NoMa will be a magnet for performing and visual artists, and recreational and cultural activities ranging from restaurants and cafes to art galleries and studios.
Our city's neighborhoods are the crown jewels of Washington, DC, and one of our greatest assets. Overall, they compare quite favorably with urban communities &127; in other cities around the world. Recently, many neighborhoods are on the rebound. Home prices and homeownership are increasing with people and businesses moving back in, renovating stores, theaters, and houses. This year the Department of Housing and Community Development invested $70 million in neighborhoods, leveraging an additional $230 million in other public and private funds. This $300 million community investment is creating 6,000 neighborhood jobs, 1.700 new and renovated homes and apartments, affordable homeownership opportunities for 1,500 families, 250,000 square feet of neighborhood retail and office space, the revitalization of 16 community business districts, and nearly 50 new or renovated neighborhood service centers including health care and child care, arts and recreation, education and job training, parks and playgrounds.
Industry Networks need more than downtown office and retail space in which to do business. They also need places to conduct satellite operations. While most of this activity currently takes place in the suburbs, Washington, DC's neighborhoods can and should successfully compete for such space. They are better served by public transportation, more centrally located within the region, less expensive in terms of office rents, and closer to major magnets such as the federal government and downtown Washington. From Adams Morgan to Anacostia, and Columbia Heights to Marshall Heights, they offer the charm of communities with historic character and spirited grassroots institutions.
In addition to office space built primarily around neighborhood Metro stations, we now have an opportunity to bring large new retail stores into Washington, DC for the first time in decades. Dr. Michael Porter of Harvard Business School, who did a study for our strategic plan on how universities can help promote neighborhood businesses, predicted in "The Competitive Advantage of the Inner City" that major retailers would soon begin moving back into urban areas. The trends he forecast are now coming true in Washington, DC. The suburbs are currently overrun with retail chains, while many of the city's neighborhoods are underserved. Our residents frequently travel out to suburban malls to make major purchases an inconvenience to our citizens and a loss of jobs, business opportunities, and sale for the city
In the constant search for new markets to tap, retail chains are looking at the city with renewed interest. If large enough parcels of land are available at accessible locations, the opportunity currently exists to bring major retailers to neighborhood commercial sites across the city, on both sides of the Anacostia River. Safeway, Giant, Home Depot, Lowes, Magic Johnson Movie Theaters, Shoppers Food Warehouse. Fresh Fields, and many other well-known retail businesses are considering making large investments by building new neighborhood stores in Washington, DC. Once developable land is fully assembled, financial incentives are packaged, and regulatory approvals expedited, the city's communities can look forward to better and more convenient shopping and services, with new jobs, business opportunities, and lax revenues to strengthen our economy. Currently, developers and retailers have their eye on several major sites. Most of these sites are near existing or planned Metro stations.
After careful discussion and analysis in preparing this strategic plan, we have determined that the most important physical resource available to strengthen the economy of our city's neighborhoods are the Metro Stations. Every Metro station existing ones such as Anacostia, ones now under construction like Columbia Heights, and the one planned for construction at New York and Florida Avenue can be an anchor, a magnet, and a gateway for expanding businesses and jobs to sense our city's neighborhoods and the people who live and work there.
Metro stations should be the focal point of commercial development and business activity all over the city. We commissioned a study by David Lee, a nationally respected African-American architect and planner from Boston, to help put this concept to the test. David Lee and his associates studied the existing land uses around 16 neighborhood Metro stations, interviewed business and community leaders, spoke to government agency representatives, met with Metro officials that own and market land for development around the stations, read existing community plans, and interacted with the six Industry Network groups to determine possible demand for business growth and commercial development around neighborhood Metro sites.
The Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) owns considerable property around their Metrorail stations, plus additional land in our city's neighborhoods for the Metrobus system. While it makes sense to develop property around Metro stations, this does not always occur. To date there has been no systematic citywide effort to make sure development happens. This action will finally accomplish that.
In each of the areas his team reviewed, David Lee found much room for improvement: uninviting streetscapes, unattractive retail storefronts, vacant lots and buildings, unanchored gateway locations, and historically &127; significant sites that were not receiving the proper attention. He then suggested ways that negatives could be turned into positives in order to attract shopping and other businesses, turn historically significant sites into major tourist attractions like the landmark Frederick Douglass House in Anacostia, and make neighborhoods better places to live. Now, taking his report as a starting point, we can work together to turn these sites into economically thriving areas.
Focus Business Activity Near Neighborhood Metro Stations
Provide public and private incentives for investment in the areas around neighborhood Metro stations, targeting both existing stations like Anacostia and newly constructed stations such as Columbia Heights. These Metro stations will serve as the primary anchors for economic development in neighborhoods, with an emphasis on promoting community shopping facilities, banks, and related office, commercial, retail, and tourist activity to expand businesses, jobs and services.
To succeed in promoting neighborhood commercial districts, both around Metro stations and in other parts of the city, merchants need to be organized to provide cleanliness, safety, and a pleasing environment for shoppers, workers, visitors, and residents. The new Business Improvement Districts Downtown DC, Golden Triangle, and now Georgetown point the way to a new model of accomplishing this important task. The financing arrangements of the downtown model would not necessarily work well in neighborhood settings, where property owners and merchants do not have the resources to support a full-time BID.
Therefore, we need to develop "BlD-like" organizations with a more mixed approach to financing that includes resources from the city government, private foundations, and other sources to match the contribution of property owners and merchants. Also, community development corporations and community-based organizations should play a key role in neighborhood-style BlDs.
One of the greatest potential development opportunities in the city is the New York Avenue corridor directly north of Union Station, where acres of developable land currently are underutilized, vacant, or abandoned. All of this will change virtually overnight once a Metro station is built on the existing Red Line at New York and Florida Avenues. It makes good sense to do this. New York Avenue is one the city's most heavily traveled thoroughfares, a federally designated highway, and a priority transportation corridor eligible for special federal funding for major improvements. The longest gap between Metro stations in Washington, DC is on the Red Line between Rhode Island Avenue and Union Station. New York Avenue is right in the middle of that gap.
Since the trains already run on the tracks above ground, the station also would be above ground, and much less expensive to build then digging a new tunnel for an underground station. Once the Metro station is constructed, the NoMa initiative can attract technology businesses to the area, which is wired for fiber optic cable that facilitates high-speed internet access. Federal Express and the Capital Commerce Center on Eckington Place are the tip of the iceberg in terms of business demand for this well-located area. Also, the area is large enough to build new housing and make it a mixed use, 24-hour community
To stimulate business activity around Metro stations in neighborhoods throughout the city, we must take full advantage of the business incentives available. The best tools in the city's incentive toolbox come in the form of the special Enterprise Zone designation the city received last year from the President and Congress. Unfortunately, the formula used to determine the boundaries of the zone high poverty census tracts produced an oddly-shaped map that included some areas of the city but excluded many others that were equally deserving of assistance. The best way to remedy this unfair situation is for the Congress to pass legislation proposed by Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes Norton that would extend these incentives to cover the entire city.
OPPORTUNITY: TARGETED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The Washington Navy Yard on M Street SE is a historic landmark and major tourist destination. It is also an active U.S. Navy facility that is in the process of' doubling its size by bringing in 5,000 Navy jobs. Since the Navy's private contractors are required to be near the Admiral's office, thousands of additional jobs will locate in the vicinity, and two new private office buildings already arc being planned for M Street near the Navy Yard Metro station.
The opportunity to leverage the Navy Yard's expansion to promote economic and community development on both sides of the Anacostia River waterfront is too good to pass up. The Navy agrees, and is actively working with community groups in Bridges to Friendship, an initiative involving many federal agencies working with non-profit groups such as Friendship House, Covenant House, and Ellen Wilson Community Development Corporation to provide training, jobs, and business opportunities for people in the nearby neighborhood.
This is just the beginning. Groups ranging from public housing residents to merchants on 8th Street SE are working together to use the Navy Yard expansion as a catalyst for positive economic change. A nonprofit development group, Manna, Inc., will prepare a waterfront area development plan to take full advantage of the economic momentum. The opportunities are exciting.
The Navy Yard expansion is tied to Anacostia River waterfront improvement on both sides of the river. The Department of Housing and Community Development and the Office of Planning are working with community groups and the three District of Columbia Council members representing Wards 6, 7. and 8, to plan for the future of East of the River neighborhoods. The plan will focus on opportunities to grow businesses and jobs around Metro stations and other key sites. Also, it will emphasize increasing homeownership and reducing the concentration of blighted apartment buildings. Currently there is a renaissance of single-family homeownership taking place East of the River, with over 1,100 new homes currently being developed for sale, competing in quality and price with houses in Prince George's County and other suburban areas that have drawn away Washington, DC's families during the past two decades.
Another targeted strategic development area is the Georgia Avenue corridor, the longest continuous avenue in the city. This long commercial strip is in some difficulty, even though it is bordered on the east and west by many attractive and stable neighborhoods. A partnership of the city government, local businesses and residents, and federal officials. is searching for ways to strengthen the corridor. The main emphasis will be on using the Metro stations as anchors, along with key sites such as Howard University, the new Washington Convention Center, and the Eastern Avenue gateway to the city. Increasing homeownership and preserving the quality of housing in the surrounding residential areas is also a vital part of the overall strategy.
Many of the targeted areas highlighted in our strategic plan were also included in the city's application for a federal Empowerment Zone, which can bring additional resources for economic and community development. The joint application, together with Prince George's County, represents unprecedented regional cooperation to address similar problems across a common border, and to connect Washington, DC's residents to suburban jobs and business opportunities. This cooperation is now happening and will continue whether we win or lose the nationwide competition for this round of Empowerment Zones.
OPPORTUNITY: COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATIONS
A report last year by the Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC) and the Center for National Policy, and a recent public television documentary, highlighted the role of Washington, DC's community development corporations (CDCs) and other nonprofit development groups in revitalizing our city's neighborhoods. Recently CDCs have developed most of the shopping centers in the city, in Marshall Heights, Columbia Heights, H Street, and the new Good Hope Marketplace in Southeast. The city government provides support through federal Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) and HOME funds, with private sector funds coming from foundations, banks, corporations, and special assistance groups like LISC, the Enterprise Foundation, and the Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation.
LISC has been the most active, helping to fund CDCs for 17 commercial and residential development projects worth $27.5 million in total community investment during the past four years alone. LISC staffs the Community Development Support Collaborative, an effective Washington, DC institution that pools the resources of foundations, banks, and corporations to finance capacity-building for community development organizations. With all of the good work being done, much more support is still needed. It will make a major difference in implementing a successful economic strategy to strengthen our city's neighborhoods.
OPPORTUNITY: BROWNFlELDS CLEAN-UP AND REDEVELOPMENT
Next to our people, the second most important resource the city has is land. Washington, DC is relatively small in geography, with no opportunity to expand its boundaries. As economic demand increases, space is at a premium. Businesses are constantly searching for sites on which to develop offices, stores, service centers, warehouses, wholesale markets, light manufacturing facilities, and other job-creating uses. We can expand our available assets by reclaiming land that is now environmentally hazardous or damaged, called "brownfields.'' Increasing the supply of developable land is not only good economics, it is good environmentalism. It will improve the quality of life in neighborhoods, because many of these sites are currently blighted and serve only as vacant junk yards or crime scenes. Cleaning up and redeveloping brownfields also is another good opportunity to involve both the business community and community residents in planning together for a sustainable prosperity.
In focusing on Strategic Areas, as in the other chapters of this report, our plan proposes key actions that will grow businesses and jobs, families and communities. It does not deal with every single issue of concern to citizens, not does it propose every single good idea or program. Many major issues, from fixing the schools, to filling the potholes, to picking up the recycling, to policing the streets, are already being addressed in other contexts. While all of these and many more problem areas remain vitally important to the success of our economic strategy, we have stuck to our knitting designed the key actions to be carried out in conjunction with these other ongoing efforts. We are not trying to reinvent the wheel; rather we are searching for the best way to do the job that we all need and want.
In downtown, and especially in our neighborhoods, the Strategic Economic Development Plan and the 40 key actions to be accomplished during in the first year will get us part of the way there. If we all keep working closely together, and take additional actions in the years ahead to keep the strategy moving farther and faster, we will most certainly succeed in creating a better city for every family and community.
CHAPTER FIVE: IMPLEMENTATION
Readers of this report may be wondering if it will be any different from the many that have come before, reports that have done little more than collect dust on bureaucrats' bookshelves.
In fact, some members of our own steering committee were skeptical about this plan at first. But they soon saw that their skepticism was ill-founded. This is not a discussion document, nor is it a wish-list prepared by well meaning academics removed from the reality of how things really work and get done in our city. The full implementation of this plan is built into the plan itself.
All 40 key actions set forth in this plan will have a designated implementation body responsible for getting the job done. Many of these lead organizations have already stepped forward, and they are now hard at work and moving ahead with their initiatives and projects.
The final four actions are presented in this concluding chapter. They are designed to make sure that the other 36 actions are successfully realized, and that the overall economic strategy produces the results of growing business, jobs people, and communities.
Two of these actions are structural changes in city government, and another is a structural change that implements a new non-profit corporation as a government supported public-private partnership. These changes will make accountability and responsibility for plan implementation clearer and more effective.
The first proposal is to create a new position of Deputy Mayor for Economic Development. That person's responsibility would be to work with every government department and agency in carrying out the Strategic Economic Development Plan for Washington, DC.
The second initiative proposes the formation of a citywide economic development corporation. A public-private partnership, it will be a vital organization similar to those that have proved beneficial in many other cities whose mission will be to make sure that economic development moves forward.
The third proposal is to establish a much-needed Office of Management and Budget. This entity would coordinate spending, taxes, and regulations across the city government, making sure they all fit together in older to carry out the economic strategy. Too often we have heard horror stories from people trying to do professional or personal business in the city, people who have been encouraged to do something by one city department, only to have another city department give them a costly fine, cause a needless delay, or even shut them down. Wc were told again and again that the lack of coordination in city government makes conducting daily business difficult and frustrating. Disorganization and lack of professionalism has driven away far too many businesses, jobs, and residents.
Finally, we have already enlisted a dedicated group of business, community, civic, and government leaders who are taking responsibility for making sure that we all do our job turning the plan into a success for cur citizens and neighborhoods.
These four actions taken together will move the process forward and provide a solid foundation and management structure for implementing the Strategic Economic Development Plan for Washington, DC. The last action Number 40 is what the plan really is all about: "By the People, For the People." People are the heart and soul of this enterprise. Four hundred people in the city created the plan, and thousands will work to carry it out. Most importantly, more than halt a million will benefit from living and working in better, more prosperous city.
Our plan's title calls attention to "The Economic Resurgence of Washington, DC." Through various examples and statistics, we document the surprisingly robust comeback of our city from its recent difficulties. Behind all the positive numbers and graphs are the lives of real people, and many people have improved their circumstances compared to a few years ago. But others are still facing tough times, which is why our economic strategy is so important. People need jobs, and we can help improve their chances of finding and keeping one.
The third part of the plan's title is "Citizens Plan for Prosperity in the 21st Century." If "prosperity" is the goal, then "citizens plan" is the means. We now have a workable plan, thanks to the active involvement of so many citizens contributing their time, energy, wisdom, and resourcefulness. They and you have given us a direction to go forward, and we told us how to get there. So let us begin together, taking the first steps on a journey to a brighter future for all the citizens of Washington, DC.
What an exciting time this is to be in Washington, DC.
With this plan, and the commitment that hundreds of people have made to seeing it through, real change is beginning to unfold. It's a change that reflects the strength of the city today as well as our creams of what the city will become. It's a change for us to enjoy now and for our c children to prosper from in the future. It's a change that's good for city residents, as well as for all those who live and work in, and visit, metropolitan Washington.
To those who doubt us to those who are cynical about Washington, DC, we have a very simple message: Just wait and see. You won't have long to wait.
The Strategic Economic Development Plan for Washington, DC, along with the Economic Summit, is a project of the District of Columbia Government and the Financial Responsibility and Management Assistance Authority, with the following co-sponsors: the United States Department of Commerce Economic Development Administration, the Local Initiatives Support Corporation, Fannie Mae, and the World Bank. The coordinators arc Richard Monteilh, Director, District of Columbia Department of Housing and Community Development, and Dr. Marc A. Weiss, Senior Adviser to the Director, District of Columbia Department of Housing and Community Development.
The Strategic Economic Development Plan was written and edited by Marc Weiss, with excellent assistance from Thomas Kingsley, Linda Burstyll, and Barbara Wolfson.
The plan and all supporting materials were designed by Hirshorn Zuckerman Design Group. Thanks to Karen Zuckerman, Glenn Watts, and their wonderful team for producing beautiful documents.
First-class management and public relations support was provided by Taunya Clark, Perry Pockros, Rose Matthews, Joyce Golden. and Thelma Jones.
The superb Steering Committee that guided the Strategic Economic Development Plan consisted of Douglas Austin, Richard Bradley, Taunya Clark, Brenda Donald, Gail Edwards, Jeffrey Finkle, Stephen Fuller, Shari Garmise, James Gibson, Mark Goldstein, Anthony Gould, Tracy Harris, Kwasi Holman, Charlene Drew Jarvis, Robert Jones, Thomas Kingsley, Cathy Lange, Susan Linsky, Darius Mans, Patricia Matthews, John McKoy, Kevin McQueen, Richard Monteilh, Orarnenta Fleming Newsome, Alvin Nichols, Douglas Patton, Perry Pockros, Paul Pryde, Viki Reath, Robert Richardson, Daniel Ritchie, Elijah Rogers, Philip Singerman, Michael Springer, Dana Stebbilis, Joscph Sternlich, Lynda de la Vina, Marc Weiss, and Paul White. Thanks to everyone for doing an amazing job in a very accelerated time frame.
Thanks also go to the Industry Network leaders and the Cross Cutting Policy Working Group Leaders for their outstanding service and leadership: Sandy Fitz-Hugh, Whayne Quin, William Edwards, Barbara Wolfson, Marie Johns, Pedro Alfonso, Charlene Drew Jarvis, Herman Bulls, John Green, Robert Malson, Austin Kiplinger, Todd Mason, A. Scott Bolden, Kwasi Holman, Gregory Fazakerly, Thomas Wilbur, Gail Edwards, John McKoy, Thomas Kingsley, Norris Dodson, Steven Jacobson, Joseph Heiney-Gonzalez, William Jameson, Robert Gladstone, Richard Bradley, Albert Hopkins, Julie Rogers, Ernest Skinner, and Oramenta Fleming Newsome, Martin Mellett, and Phyliss Jones.
Finally, thanks to the brilliant researchers for their great work: Stephen Fuller, Michael Porter, Monica Dean, Kevin McQueen, Steven Waldhorn, James Gollub, Ted Lyman, Lawrence Houston, Gene Park, Thomas Kingsley, Margery Austin Turner, Mark Rubin, Kathy Pettit, Christopher Hayes, George Grier, David Lee, Philip Payne, Derrick Woody, Jeffrey Finkle, Shari Garmise, Kimberly Driggins, Joseph Marinucci, Michael Montgomery, James Reid, Sherman Davis, Claudia Pharis, and Daniel Rosan.
A very special thanks goes to Taunya Clark.
APPENDIX: 40 KEY ACTIONS
1. STRATEGIC INDUSTRIES
II. STRATEGIC POPULATIONS
III. STRATEGIC AREAS
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